An independent evaluation of software products or processes to ascertain compliance to standards, guidelines, specifications, and/or procedures based on objective criteria, including documents that specify: (1) the form or content of the products to be produced; (2) the process by which the products shall be produced; (3) how compliance to standards or guidelines shall be measured. [IEEE 1028]
Directed and focused attempt to evaluate the quality, especially reliability, of a test object by attempting to force specific failures to occur. See also negative testing.
Any condition that deviates from expectation based on requirements specifications, design documents, user documents, standards, etc. or from someone’s perception or experience. Anomalies may be found during, but not limited to, reviewing, testing, analysis, compilation, or use of software products or applicable documentation. [IEEE 1044] See also bug, defect, deviation, error, fault, failure, incident, problem.
The capability of the software product to provide the right or agreed results or effects with the needed degree of precision. [ISO 9126] See also functionality testing.
See static analyzer.
A person who conducts an assessment; any member of an assessment team.
abstract test case
See high level test case.
See acceptance testing.
The exit criteria that a component or system must satisfy in order to be accepted by a user, customer, or other authorized entity. [IEEE 610]
Formal testing with respect to user needs, requirements, and business processes conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies the acceptance criteria and to enable the user, customers or other authorized entity to determine whether or not to accept the system. [After IEEE 610]
Testing to determine the ease by which users with disabilities can use a component or system. [Gerrard]
The process of testing to determine the accuracy of a software product
The phase within the IDEAL model where the improvements are developed, put into practice, and deployed across the organization. The acting phase consists of the activities: create solution, pilot/test solution, refine solution and implement solution. See also IDEAL.
action word driven testing
See keyword driven testing
See actual result.
The behavior produced/observed when a component or system is tested.
ad hoc review
See informal review.
ad hoc testing
Testing carried out informally; no formal test preparation takes place, no recognized test design technique is used, there are no expectations for results and arbitrariness guides the test execution activity.
The capability of the software product to be adapted for different specified environments without applying actions or means other than those provided for this purpose for the software considered. [ISO 9126] See also portability.
A statement on the values that underpin agile software development. The values are:
- individuals and interactions over processes and tools
- working software over comprehensive documentation
- customer collaboration over contract negotiation
- responding to change over following a plan.
agile software development
A group of software development methodologies based on iterative incremental development, where requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing cross-functional teams.
Testing practice for a project using agile methodologies, such as extreme programming (XP), treating development as the customer of testing and emphasizing the test-first design paradigm. See also test driven development.
[TMap] See branch testing.
Simulated or actual operational testing by potential users/customers or an independent test team at the developers’ site, but outside the development organization. Alpha testing is often employed for off-the-shelf software as a form of internal acceptance testing.
The capability of the software product to be diagnosed for deficiencies or causes of failures in the software, or for the parts to be modified to be identified. [ISO 9126] See also maintainability.
See branch testing.
A document summarizing the assessment results, e.g. conclusions, recommendations and findings. See also process assessment.
The capability of the software product to be attractive to the user. [ISO 9126] See also usability.
A path by which the original input to a process (e.g. data) can be traced back through the process, taking the process output as a starting point. This facilitates defect analysis and allows a process audit to be carried out. [After TMap]
Testware used in automated testing, such as tool scripts.
The degree to which a component or system is operational and accessible when required for use. Often expressed as a percentage. [IEEE 610]
A basic block that can be selected for execution based on a program construct in which one of two or more alternative program paths is available, e.g. case, jump, go to, if-then-else.
A device or storage area used to store data temporarily for differences in rates of data flow, time or occurrence of events, or amounts of data that can be handled by the devices or processes involved in the transfer or use of the data. [IEEE 610]
A specification or software product that has been formally reviewed or agreed upon, that thereafter serves as the basis for further development, and that can be changed only through a formal change control process. [After IEEE 610]
The response of a component or system to a set of input values and preconditions.
[Abbott] See fault seeding.
Testing in which two or more variants of a component or system are executed with the same inputs, the outputs compared, and analyzed in cases of discrepancies. [IEEE 610]
A strategic performance management tool for measuring whether the operational activities of a company are aligned with its objectives in terms of business vision and strategy. See also corporate dashboard, scorecard.
A sequence of one or more consecutive executable statements containing no branches. Note: A node in a control flow graph represents a basic block.
basis test set
A set of test cases derived from the internal structure of a component or specification to ensure that 100% of a specified coverage criterion will be achieved.
(1) A standard against which measurements or comparisons can be made. (2) A test that is be used to compare components or systems to each other or to a standard as in (1). [After IEEE 610]
Software developed specifically for a set of users or customers. The opposite is off-the-shelf software.
A superior method or innovative practice that contributes to the improved performance of an organization under given context, usually recognized as ‘best’ by other peer organizations.
Operational testing by potential and/or existing users/customers at an external site not otherwise involved with the developers, to determine whether or not a component or system satisfies the user/customer needs and fits within the business processes. Beta testing is often employed as a form of external acceptance testing for off-the-shelf software in order to acquire feedback from the market.
A type of integration testing in which software elements, hardware elements, or both are combined all at once into a component or an overall system, rather than in stages. [After IEEE 610] See also integration testing.
black box technique
See black box test design technique.
black box test design technique
Procedure to derive and/or select test cases based on an analysis of the specification, either functional or non-functional, of a component or system without reference to its internal structure.
black box testing
Testing, either functional or non-functional, without reference to the internal structure of the component or system.
blocked test case
A test case that cannot be executed because the preconditions for its execution are not fulfilled.
An incremental approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, and then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. This process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested. See also integration testing.
An input value or output value which is on the edge of an equivalence partition or at the smallest incremental distance on either side of an edge, for example the minimum or maximum value of a range.
boundary value analysis
A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed based on boundary values. See also boundary value.
boundary value coverage
The percentage of boundary values that have been exercised by a test suite.
boundary value testing
See boundary value analysis.
branch condition combination coverage
See multiple condition coverage.
branch condition combination testing
See multiple condition testing.
branch condition coverage
See condition coverage.
The percentage of branches that have been exercised by a test suite. 100% branch coverage implies both 100% decision coverage and 100% statement coverage.
A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute branches.
A memory access failure due to the attempt by a process to store data beyond the boundaries of a fixed length buffer, resulting in overwriting of adjacent memory areas or the raising of an overflow exception. See also buffer.
See defect report.
See defect taxonomy.
bug tracking tool
See defect management tool.
business process-based testing
An approach to testing in which test cases are designed based on descriptions and/or knowledge of business processes.
See Critical Testing Processes.
Acronym for Computer Aided Software Engineering.
Acronym for Computer Aided Software Testing. See also test automation.
Computer instructions and data definitions expressed in a programming language or in a form output by an assembler, compiler or other translator. [IEEE 610]
Acronym for Commercial Off-The-Shelf software. See off-the-shelf software.
A software tool that translates programs expressed in a high order language into their machine language equivalents. [IEEE 610]
The degree, expressed as a percentage, to which a specified coverage item has been exercised by a test suite.
A minimal software item that can be tested in isolation.
A logical expression that can be evaluated as True or False, e.g. A>B. See also test condition.
An abstract representation of calling relationships between subroutines in a program.
Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
A five level staged framework that describes the key elements of an effective software process. The Capability Maturity Model covers best-practices for planning, engineering and managing software development and maintenance. [CMM] See also Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI).
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)
A framework that describes the key elements of an effective product development and maintenance process. The Capability Maturity Model Integration covers best-practices for planning, engineering and managing product development and maintenance. CMMI is the designated successor of the CMM. [CMMI] See also Capability Maturity Model (CMM).
A type of test execution tool where inputs are recorded during manual testing in order to generate automated test scripts that can be executed later (i.e. replayed). These tools are often used to support automated regression testing.
See capture/playback tool.
The analysis of defects to determine their root cause. [CMMI]
See cause-effect graphing.
cause-effect decision table
See decision table.
A graphical representation used to organize and display the interrelationships of various possible root causes of a problem. Possible causes of a real or potential defect or failure are organized in categories and subcategories in a horizontal tree-structure, with the (potential) defect or failure as the root node. [After Juran]
A graphical representation of inputs and/or stimuli (causes) with their associated outputs (effects), which can be used to design test cases.
A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed from cause-effect graphs. [BS 7925/2]
The process of confirming that a component, system or person complies with its specified requirements, e.g. by passing an exam.
See configuration control.
change control board
See configuration control board.
(1) A structured approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. (2) Controlled way to effect a change, or a proposed change, to a product or service. See also configuration management.
The capability of the software product to enable specified modifications to be implemented. [ISO 9126] See also maintainability.
An experience-based test design technique whereby the experienced tester uses a high-level list of items to be noted, checked, or remembered, or a set of rules or criteria against which a product has to be verified. See also experience-based testing.
Chow’s coverage metrics
See N-switch coverage. [Chow]
A tree showing equivalence partitions hierarchically ordered, which is used to design test cases in the classification tree method. See also classification tree method.
classification tree method
A black box test design technique in which test cases, describedby means of a classification tree, are designed to execute combinations of representatives of input and/or output domains. [Grochtmann]
See white-box testing.
The capability of the software product to co-exist with other independent software in a common environment sharing common resources. [ISO 9126] See also portability.
See static code analyzer.
An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test suite and which parts have not been executed, e.g. statement coverage, decision coverage or condition coverage.
See white box testing.
Excessive emotional or psychological dependence on another person, specifically in trying to change that person’s current (undesirable) behavior while supporting them in continuing that behavior. For example, in software testing, complaining about late delivery to test and yet enjoying the necessary “heroism” working additional hours to make up time when delivery is running late, therefore reinforcing the lateness.
commercial off-the-shelf software
See off-the-shelf software.
See test comparator.
See interoperability testing.
See exhaustive testing.
See exit criteria.
The degree to which a component or system has a design and/or internal structure that is difficult to understand, maintain and verify. See also cyclomatic complexity.
The capability of the software product to adhere to standards, conventions or regulations in laws and similar prescriptions. [ISO 9126]
The process of testing to determine the compliance of the component or system.
component integration testing
Testing performed to expose defects in the interfaces and interaction between integrated components.
A description of a component’s function in terms of its output values for specified input values under specified conditions, and required non-functional behavior (e.g. resource-utilization).
The testing of individual software components. [After IEEE 610]
Two or more single conditions joined by means of a logical operator (AND, OR or XOR), e.g. ‘A>B AND C>1000’.
concrete test case
See low level test case.
Testing to determine how the occurrence of two or more activities within the same interval of time, achieved either by interleaving the activities or by simultaneous execution, is handled by the component or system. [After IEEE 610]
condition combination coverage
See multiple condition coverage.
condition combination testing
See multiple condition testing.
The percentage of condition outcomes that have been exercised by a test suite. 100% condition coverage requires each single condition in every decision statement to be tested as True and False.
condition determination coverage
The percentage of all single condition outcomes that independently affect a decision outcome that have been exercised by a test case suite. 100% condition determination coverage implies 100% decision condition coverage.
condition determination testing
A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute single condition outcomes that independently affect a decision outcome.
The evaluation of a condition to True or False.
A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute condition outcomes.
See smoke test.
The composition of a component or system as defined by the number, nature, and interconnections of its constituent parts.
The function to check on the contents of libraries of configuration items, e.g. for standards compliance. [IEEE 610]
An element of configuration management, consisting of the evaluation, co-ordination, approval or disapproval, and implementation of changes to configuration items after formal establishment of their configuration identification. [IEEE 610]
configuration control board (CCB)
A group of people responsible for evaluating and approving or disapproving proposed changes to configuration items, and for ensuring implementation of approved changes. [IEEE 610]
An element of configuration management, consisting of selecting the configuration items for a system and recording their functional and physical characteristics in technical documentation. [IEEE 610]
An aggregation of hardware, software or both, that is designated for configuration management and treated as a single entity in the configuration management process. [IEEE 610]
A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item, control changes to those characteristics, record and report change processing and implementation status, and verify compliance with specified requirements. [IEEE 610]
configuration management tool
A tool that provides support for the identification and control of configuration items, their status over changes and versions, and the release of baselines consisting of configuration items.
See portability testing.
See compliance testing.
The degree of uniformity, standardization, and freedom from contradiction among the documents or parts of a component or system. [IEEE 610]
A process model providing a detailed description of good engineering practices, e.g. test practices.
A capability maturity model structure wherein capability levels provide a recommended order for approaching process improvement within specified process areas. [CMMI]
A sequence of events (paths) in the execution through a component or system.
control flow analysis
A form of static analysis based on a representation of unique paths (sequences of events) in the execution through a component or system. Control flow analysis evaluates the integrity of control flow structures, looking for possible control flow anomalies such as closed loops or logically unreachable process steps.
control flow graph
An abstract representation of all possible sequences of events (paths) in the execution through a component or system.
control flow path
Testing of software used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems.
A dashboard-style representation of the status of corporate performance data. See also balanced scorecard, dashboard.
cost of quality
The total costs incurred on quality activities and issues and often split into prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs and external failure costs.
Measurement of achieved coverage to a specified coverage item during test execution referring to predetermined criteria to determine whether additional testing is required and if so, which test cases are needed.
An entity or property used as a basis for test coverage, e.g. equivalence partitions or code statements.
coverage measurement tool
See coverage tool.
A tool that provides objective measures of what structural elements, e.g. statements, branches have been exercised by a test suite.
critical success factor
An element which is necessary for an organization or project to achieve its mission. They are the critical factors or activities required for ensuring the success. See also content-based model.
Critical Testing Processes
A content-based model for test process improvement built around twelve critical processes. These include highly visible processes, by which peers and management judge competence and mission-critical processes in which performance affects the company’s profits and reputation.
See bespoke software.
The number of independent paths through a program. Cyclomatic complexity is defined as: L – N + 2P, where
See cyclomatic complexity.
A flaw in a component or system that can cause the component or system to fail to perform its required function, e.g. an incorrect statement or data definition. A defect, if encountered during execution, may cause a failure of the component or system.
The set from which valid input and/or output values can be selected.
A software component or test tool that replaces a component that takes care of the control and/or the calling of a component or system. [After TMap]
A path of execution (usually through a graph representing a program, such as a flow-chart) that does not include any conditional nodes such as the path of execution between two decisions.
See debugging tool.
A program point at which the control flow has two or more alternative routes. A node with two or more links to separate branches.
A representation of dynamic measurements of operational performance for some organization or activity, using metrics represented via metaphores such as visual “dials”, “counters”, and other devices resembling those on the dashboard of an automobile, so that the effects of events or activities can be easily understood and related to operational goals. See also corporate dashboard, scorecard.
An abstract representation of the sequence and possible changes of the state of data objects, where the state of an object is any of: creation, usage, or destruction. [Beizer]
See unreachable code.
The process of finding, analyzing and removing the causes of failures in software.
a development activity where a complete system is compiled and linked every day (usually overnight), so that a consistent system is available at any time including all latest changes.
An executable statement where a variable is assigned a value.
data driven testing
A scripting technique that stores test input and expected results in a table or spreadsheet, so that a single control script can execute all of the tests in the table. Data driven testing is often used to support the application of test execution tools such as capture/playback tools. [Fewster and Graham] See also keyword driven testing.
data flow analysis
A form of static analysis based on the definition and usage of variables.
data flow coverage
The percentage of definition-use pairs that have been exercised by a test suite.
data flow testing
A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute definition and use pairs of variables.
data integrity testing
See database integrity testing.
database integrity testing
Testing the methods and processes used to access and manage the data(base), to ensure access methods, processes and data rules function as expected and that during access to the database, data is not corrupted or unexpectedly deleted, updated or created.
A tool used by programmers to reproduce failures, investigate the state of programs and find the corresponding defect. Debuggers enable programmers to execute programs step by step, to halt a program at any program statement and to set and examine program variables.
decision condition coverage
The percentage of all condition outcomes and decision outcomes that have been exercised by a test suite. 100% decision condition coverage implies both 100% condition coverage and 100% decision coverage.
decision condition testing
A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute condition outcomes and decision outcomes.
The percentage of decision outcomes that have been exercised by a test suite. 100% decision coverage implies both 100% branch coverage and 100% statement coverage.
The result of a decision (which therefore determines the branches to be taken).
A table showing combinations of inputs and/or stimuli (causes) with their associated outputs and/or actions (effects), which can be used to design test cases.
decision table testing
A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute the combinations of inputs and/or stimuli (causes) shown in a decision table. [Veenendaal04] See also decision table.
A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute decision outcomes.
defect based technique
See defect based test design technique.
defect based test design technique
A procedure to derive and/or select test cases targeted at one or more defect categories, with tests being developed from what is known about the specific defect category. See also defect taxonomy.
The number of defects identified in a component or system divided by the size of the component or system (expressed in standard measurement terms, e.g. lines-of-code, number of classes or function points).
Defect Detection Percentage (DDP)
The number of defects found by a test phase, divided by the number found by that test phase and any other means afterwards.
The process of recognizing, investigating, taking action and disposing of defects. It involves recording defects, classifying them and identifying the impact. [After IEEE 1044]
defect management tool
A tool that facilitates the recording and status tracking of defects and changes. They often have workflow-oriented facilities to track and control the allocation, correction and re-testing of defects and provide reporting facilities. See also incident management tool.
An occurrence in which one defect prevents the detection of another. [After IEEE 610]
A document reporting on any flaw in a component or system that can cause the component or system to fail to perform its required function. [After IEEE 829]
A system of (hierarchical) categories designed to be a useful aid for reproducibly classifying defects.
defect tracking tool
See defect management tool.
The association of the definition of a variable with the use of that variable. Variable uses include computational (e.g. multiplication) or to direct the execution of a path (“predicate” use).
Any (work) product that must be delivered to someone other than the (work) product’s author.
An iterative four-step problem-solving process, (plan-do-check-act), typically used in process improvement. [After Deming]
An approach to testing in which test cases are designed based on the architecture and/or detailed design of a component or system (e.g. tests of interfaces between components or systems).
Testing of software or a specification by manual simulation of its execution. See also static testing.
Formal or informal testing conducted during the implementation of a component or system, usually in the development environment by developers. [After IEEE 610]
See incident report.
The phase within the IDEAL model where it is determined where one is, relative to where one wants to be. The diagnosing phase consists of the activities: characterize current and desired states and develop recommendations. See also IDEAL.
See negative testing.
Testing the quality of the documentation, e.g. user guide or installation guide.
The process of evaluating behavior, e.g. memory performance, CPU usage, of a system or component during execution. [After IEEE 610]
dynamic analysis tool
A tool that provides run-time information on the state of the software code. These tools are most commonly used to identify unassigned pointers, check pointer arithmetic and to monitor the allocation, use and de-allocation of memory and to flag memory leaks.
Comparison of actual and expected results, performed while the software is being executed, for example by a test execution tool.
Testing that involves the execution of the software of a component or system.
A human action that produces an incorrect result. [After IEEE 610]
A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system. [IEEE 610] See also simulator.
A program element is said to be exercised by a test case when the input value causes the execution of that element, such as a statement, decision, or other structural element.
The capability of the software product to provide appropriate performance, relative to the amount of resources used under stated conditions. [ISO 9126]
The process of testing to determine the efficiency of a software product.
EFQM (European Foundation for Quality Management) excellence model
A non-prescriptive framework for an organisation’s quality management system, defined and owned by the European Foundation for Quality Management, based on five ‘Enabling’ criteria (covering what an organisation does), and four ‘Results’ criteria (covering what an organisation achieves).
elementary comparison testing
A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute combinations of inputs using the concept of condition determination coverage. [TMap]
The ability, capacity, and skill to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one’s self, of others, and of groups.
The set of generic and specific conditions for permitting a process to go forward with a defined task, e.g. test phase. The purpose of entry criteria is to prevent a task from starting which would entail more (wasted) effort compared to the effort needed to remove the failed entry criteria. [Gilb and Graham]
An executable statement or process step which defines a point at which a given process is intended to begin..
See equivalence partition.
A portion of an input or output domain for which the behavior of a component or system is assumed to be the same, based on the specification.
equivalence partition coverage
The percentage of equivalence partitions that have been exercised by a test suite.
A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence partitions. In principle test cases are designed to cover each partition at least once.
A test design technique where the experience of the tester is used to anticipate what defects might be present in the component or system under test as a result of errors made, and to design tests specifically to expose them.
See fault seeding.
error seeding tool
See fault seeding tool.
The ability of a system or component to continue normal operation despite the presence of erroneous inputs. [After IEEE 610].
The phase within the IDEAL model where the specifics of how an organization will reach its destination are planned. The establishing phase consists of the activities: set priorities, develop approach and plan actions. See also IDEAL.
Behavior of a component or system in response to erroneous input, from either a human user or from another component or system, or to an internal failure.
A statement which, when compiled, is translated into object code, and which will be executed procedurally when the program is running and may perform an action on data.
A test approach in which the test suite comprises all combinations of input values and preconditions.
The set of generic and specific conditions, agreed upon with the stakeholders, for permitting a process to be officially completed. The purpose of exit criteria is to prevent a task from being considered completed when there are still outstanding parts of the task which have not been finished. Exit criteria are used to report against and to plan when to stop testing. [After Gilb and Graham]
An executable statement or process step which defines a point at which a given process is intended to cease..
See expected result.
The behavior predicted by the specification, or another source, of the component or system under specified conditions.
See experience-based test design technique.
experience-based test design technique
Procedure to derive and/or select test cases based on the tester’s experience, knowledge and intuition.
An informal test design technique where the tester actively controls the design of the tests as those tests are performed and uses information gained while testing to design new and better tests. [After Bach]
A software engineering methodology used within agile software development whereby core practices are programming in pairs, doing extensive code review, unit testing of all code, and simplicity and clarity in code. See also agile software development.
A test is deemed to fail if its actual result does not match its expected result.
Deviation of the component or system from its expected delivery, service or result. [After Fenton]
An attribute of a component or system specified or implied by requirements documentation (for example reliability, usability or design constraints). [After IEEE 1008]
The physical or functional manifestation of a failure. For example, a system in failure mode may be characterized by slow operation, incorrect outputs, or complete termination of execution. [IEEE 610]
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
A systematic approach to risk identification and analysis of identifying possible modes of failure and attempting to prevent their occurrence. See also Failure Mode, Effect and Criticality Analysis (FMECA).
Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)
An extension of FMEA, as in addition to the basic FMEA, it includes a criticality analysis, which is used to chart the probability of failure modes against the severity of their consequences. The result highlights failure modes with relatively high probability and severity of consequences, allowing remedial effort to be directed where it will produce the greatest value. See also Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA).
The ratio of the number of failures of a given category to a given unit of measure, e.g. failures per unit of time, failures per number of transactions, failures per number of computer runs. [IEEE 610]
A test result in which a defect is reported although no such defect actually exists in the test object.
See false-pass result.
A test result which fails to identify the presence of a defect that is actually present in the test object.
See false-fail result.
See defect density.
Fault Detection Percentage (FDP)
See Defect Detection Percentage (DDP).
See defect masking.
The process of intentionally adding known defects to those already in the component or system for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal, and estimating the number of remaining defects. [IEEE 610]
fault seeding tool
A tool for seeding (i.e. intentionally inserting) faults in a component or system.
The capability of the software product to maintain a specified level of performance in cases of software faults (defects) or of infringement of its specified interface. [ISO 9126] See also reliability, robustness.
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
A technique used to analyze the causes of faults (defects). The technique visually models how logical relationships between failures, human errors, and external events can combine to cause specific faults to disclose.
A path for which a set of input values and preconditions exists which causes it to be executed.
See beta testing.
finite state machine
A computational model consisting of a finite number of states and transitions between those states, possibly with accompanying actions. [IEEE 610]
finite state testing
See state transition testing.
See cause-effect diagram.
A review characterized by documented procedures and requirements, e.g. inspection.
frozen test basis
A test basis document that can only be amended by a formal change control process. See also baseline.
Function Point Analysis (FPA)
Method aiming to measure the size of the functionality of an information system. The measurement is independent of the technology. This measurement may be used as a basis for the measurement of productivity, the estimation of the needed resources, and project control.
An integration approach that combines the components or systems for the purpose of getting a basic functionality working early. See also integration testing.
A requirement that specifies a function that a component or system must perform. [IEEE 610]
functional test design technique
Procedure to derive and/or select test cases based on an analysis of the specification of the functionality of a component or system without reference to its internal structure. See also black box test design technique.
Testing based on an analysis of the specification of the functionality of a component or system. See also black box testing.
The capability of the software product to provide functions which meet stated and implied needs when the software is used under specified conditions. [ISO 9126]
The process of testing to determine the functionality of a software product.
See Goal Question Metric.
glass box testing
See white box testing.
Goal Question Metric
An approach to software measurement using a three-level model: conceptual level (goal), operational level (question) and quantitative level (metric).
A pointer within a web page that leads to other web pages.
A technique used to characterize the elements of risk. The result of a hazard analysis will drive the methods used for development and testing of a system. See also risk analysis.
A static usability test technique to determine the compliance of a user interface with recognized usability principles (the so-called “heuristics”).
high level test case
A test case without concrete (implementation level) values for input data and expected results. Logical operators are used; instances of the actual values are not yet defined and/or available. See also low level test case.
The tracing of requirements for a test level through the layers of test documentation (e.g. test plan, test design specification, test case specification and test procedure specification or test script).
hyperlink test tool
A tool used to check that no broken hyperlinks are present on a web site.
An organizational improvement model that serves as a roadmap for initiating, planning, and implementing improvement actions. The IDEAL model is named for the five phases it describes: initiating, diagnosing, establishing, acting, and learning.
A variable (whether stored within a component or outside) that is read by a component.
Any event occurring that requires investigation. [After IEEE 1008]
A measure that can be used to estimate or predict another measure. [ISO 14598]
The assessment of change to the layers of development documentation, test documentation and components, in order to implement a given change to specified requirements.
Recording the details of any incident that occurred, e.g. during testing.
The process of recognizing, investigating, taking action and disposing of incidents. It involves logging incidents, classifying them and identifying the impact. [After IEEE 1044]
incident management tool
A tool that facilitates the recording and status tracking of incidents. They often have workflow-oriented facilities to track and control the allocation, correction and re-testing of incidents and provide reporting facilities. See also defect management tool.
A document reporting on any event that occurred, e.g. during the testing, which requires investigation. [After IEEE 829]
incremental development model
A development lifecycle where a project is broken into a series of increments, each of which delivers a portion of the functionality in the overall project requirements. The requirements are prioritized and delivered in priority order in the appropriate increment. In some (but not all) versions of this lifecycle model, each subproject follows a ‘mini V-model’ with its own design, coding and testing phases.
Testing where components or systems are integrated and tested one or some at a time, until all the components or systems are integrated and tested.
independence of testing
Separation of responsibilities, which encourages the accomplishment of objective testing. [After DO-178b]
A path that cannot be exercised by any set of possible input values.
A review not based on a formal (documented) procedure.
The phase within the IDEAL model where the groundwork is laid for a successful improvement effort. The initiating phase consists of the activities: set context, build sponsorship and charter infrastructure. See also IDEAL.
The set from which valid input values can be selected. See also domain.
An instance of an input. See also input.
A type of peer review that relies on visual examination of documents to detect defects, e.g. violations of development standards and non-conformance to higher level documentation. The most formal review technique and therefore always based on a documented procedure. [After IEEE 610, IEEE 1028] See also peer review.
The capability of the software product to be installed in a specified environment [ISO 9126]. See also portability.
The process of testing the installability of a software product. See also portability testing.
Supplied instructions on any suitable media, which guides the installer through the installation process. This may be a manual guide, step-by-step procedure, installation wizard, or any other similar process description.
Supplied software on any suitable media, which leads the installer through the installation process. It normally runs the installation process, provides feedback on installation results, and prompts for options.
The insertion of additional code into the program in order to collect information about program behavior during execution, e.g. for measuring code coverage.
A software tool used to carry out instrumentation.
A special instance of a smoke test to decide if the component or system is ready for detailed and further testing. An intake test is typically carried out at the start of the test execution phase. See also smoke test.
The process of combining components or systems into larger assemblies.
Testing performed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the interactions between integrated components or systems. See also component integration testing, system integration testing.
integration testing in the large
See system integration testing.
integration testing in the small
See component integration testing.
An integration test type that is concerned with testing the interfaces between components or systems.
The capability of the software product to interact with one or more specified components or systems. [After ISO 9126] See also functionality.
The process of testing to determine the interoperability of a software product. See also functionality testing.
Testing using input values that should be rejected by the component or system. See also error tolerance, negative testing.
See cause-effect diagram.
Testing of individual components in isolation from surrounding components, with surrounding components being simulated by stubs and drivers, if needed.
item transmittal report
See release note.
iterative development model
A development lifecycle where a project is broken into a usually large number of iterations. An iteration is a complete development loop resulting in a release (internal or external) of an executable product, a subset of the final product under development, which grows from iteration to iteration to become the final product.
key performance indicator
See performance indicator.
keyword driven testing
A scripting technique that uses data files to contain not only test data and expected results, but also keywords related to the application being tested. The keywords are interpreted by special supporting scripts that are called by the control script for the test. See also data driven testing.
A Linear Code Sequence And Jump, consists of the following three items (conventionally identified by line numbers in a source code listing): the start of the linear sequence of executable statements, the end of the linear sequence, and the target line to which control flow is transferred at the end of the linear sequence.
The percentage of LCSAJs of a component that have been exercised by a test suite. 100% LCSAJ coverage implies 100% decision coverage.
A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute LCSAJs.
The person who leads an assessment. In some cases, for instance CMMi and TMMi when formal assessments are conducted, the lead-assessor must be accredited and formally trained.
The capability of the software product to enable the user to learn its application. [ISO 9126] See also usability.
The phase within the IDEAL model where one learns from experiences and improves one’s ability to adopt new processes and technologies in the future. The learning phase consists of the activities: analyze and validate, and propose future actions. See also IDEAL.
level test plan
A test plan that typically addresses one test level. See also test plan.
A partitioning of the life of a product or project into phases. [CMMI] See also software lifecycle.
See component integration testing.
A specification of the activity which a component or system being tested may experience in production. A load profile consists of a designated number of virtual users who process a defined set of transactions in a specified time period and according to a predefined operational profile. See also operational profile.
A type of performance testing conducted to evaluate the behavior of a component or system with increasing load, e.g. numbers of parallel users and/or numbers of transactions, to determine what load can be handled by the component or system. See also performance testing, stress testing.
load testing tool
See performance testing tool.
See white box testing. [Myers]
See white box testing.
logical test case
See high level test case.
low level test case
A test case with concrete (implementation level) values for input data and expected results. Logical operators from high level test cases are replaced by actual values that correspond to the objectives of the logical operators. See also high level test case.
See Mean Time Between Failures.
See Mean Time To Repair.
A measurement scale and the method used for measurement. [ISO 14598]
The number or category assigned to an attribute of an entity by making a measurement. [ISO 14598]
A software tool or hardware device that runs concurrently with the component or system under test and supervises, records and/or analyses the behavior of the component or system. [After IEEE 610]
(1) The capability of an organization with respect to the effectiveness and efficiency of its processes and work practices. See also Capability Maturity Model, Test Maturity Model. (2) The capability of the software product to avoid failure as a result of defects in the software. [ISO 9126] See also reliability.
A diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks, or other items linked to and arranged around a central key word or idea. Mind maps are used to generate, visualize, structure, and classify ideas, and as an aid in study, organization, problem solving, decision making, and writing.
A point in time in a project at which defined (intermediate) deliverables and results should be ready.
The leader and main person responsible for an inspection or other review process.
The ease with which a software product can be modified to correct defects, modified to meet new requirements, modified to make future maintenance easier, or adapted to a changed environment. [ISO 9126]
The process of testing to determine the maintainability of a software product.
Modification of a software product after delivery to correct defects, to improve performance or other attributes, or to adapt the product to a modified environment. [IEEE 1219]
Testing the changes to an operational system or the impact of a changed environment to an operational system.
A systematic evaluation of software acquisition, supply, development, operation, or maintenance process, performed by or on behalf of management that monitors progress, determines the status of plans and schedules, confirms requirements and their system allocation, or evaluates the effectiveness of management approaches to achieve fitness for purpose. [After IEEE 610, IEEE 1028]
A view of quality, whereby quality is measured by the degree to which a product or service conforms to its intended design and requirements. Quality arises from the process(es) used. [After Garvin] See also product-based quality, transcendent-based quality, user-based quality, value-based quality.
master test plan
A test plan that typically addresses multiple test levels. See also test plan.
Degree of process improvement across a predefined set of process areas in which all goals in the set are attained. [TMMi]
A structured collection of elements that describe certain aspects of maturity in an organization, and aid in the definition and understanding of an organization’s processes. A maturity model often provides a common language, shared vision and framework for prioritizing improvement actions.
Mean Time Between Failures
The arithmetic mean (average) time between failures of a system. The MTBF is typically part of a reliability growth model that assumes the failed system is immediately repaired, as a part of a defect fixing process. See also reliability growth model.
Mean Time To Repair
The arithmetic mean (average) time a system will take to recover from any failure. This typically includes testing to insure that the defect has been resolved.
The process of assigning a number or category to an entity to describe an attribute of that entity. [ISO 14598]
A scale that constrains the type of data analysis that can be performed on it. [ISO 14598]
A memory access failure due to a defect in a program’s dynamic store allocation logic that causes it to fail to release memory after it has finished using it, eventually causing the program and/or other concurrent processes to fail due to lack of memory.
See conversion testing.
A tool that supports the creation, amendment and verification of models of the software or system [Graham].
modified condition decision coverage
See condition determination coverage.
modified condition decision testing
See condition determination testing.
modified multiple condition coverage
See condition determination coverage.
modified multiple condition testing
See condition determination testing.
See component testing.
Testing by means of a random selection from a large range of inputs and by randomly pushing buttons, ignorant of how the product is being used.
See compound condition.
multiple condition coverage
The percentage of combinations of all single condition outcomes within one statement that have been exercised by a test suite. 100% multiple condition coverage implies 100% condition determination coverage.
multiple condition testing
A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute combinations of single condition outcomes (within one statement).
A method to determine test suite thoroughness by measuring the extent to which a test suite can discriminate the program from slight variants (mutants) of the program.
See back-to-back testing.
The percentage of sequences of N+1 transitions that have been exercised by a test suite. [Chow]
A form of state transition testing in which test cases are designed to execute all valid sequences of N+1 transitions. [Chow] See also state transition testing.
Tests aimed at showing that a component or system does not work. Negative testing is related to the testers’ attitude rather than a specific test approach or test design technique, e.g. testing with invalid input values or exceptions. [After Beizer].
Non fulfillment of a specified requirement. [ISO 9000]
A requirement that does not relate to functionality, but to attributes such as reliability, efficiency, usability, maintainability and portability.
non-functional test design technique
Procedure to derive and/or select test cases for nonfunctional testing based on an analysis of the specification of a component or system without reference to its internal structure. See also black box test design technique.
Testing the attributes of a component or system that do not relate to functionality, e.g. reliability, efficiency, usability, maintainability and portability.
A variable (whether stored within a component or outside) that is written by a component.
A software product that is developed for the general market, i.e. for a large number of customers, and that is delivered to many customers in identical format.
The capability of the software product to enable the user to operate and control it. [ISO 9126] See also usability.
operational acceptance testing
Operational testing in the acceptance test phase, typically performed in a (simulated) operational environment by operations and/or systems administration staff focusing on operational aspects, e.g. recoverability, resource-behavior, installability and technical compliance. See also operational testing.
Hardware and software products installed at users’ or customers’ sites where the component or system under test will be used. The software may include operating systems, database management systems, and other applications.
The representation of a distinct set of tasks performed by the component or system, possibly based on user behavior when interacting with the component or system, and their probabilities of occurence. A task is logical rather that physical and can be executed over several machines or be executed in non-contiguous time segments.
operational profile testing
Statistical testing using a model of system operations (short duration tasks) and their probability of typical use. [Musa]
Testing conducted to evaluate a component or system in its operational environment. [IEEE 610]
A 2-dimensional array constructed with special mathematical properties, such that choosing any two columns in the array provides every pair combination of each number in the array.
orthogonal array testing
A systematic way of testing all-pair combinations of variables using orthogonal arrays. It significantly reduces the number of all combinations of variables to test all pair combinations. See also pairwise testing.
The set from which valid output values can be selected. See also domain.
An instance of an output. See also output.
A test is deemed to pass if its actual result matches its expected result.
A sequence of events, e.g. executable statements, of a component or system from an entry point to an exit point.
A data item that specifies the location of another data item; for example, a data item that specifies the address of the next employee record to be processed. [IEEE 610]
A set of interrelated activities, which transform inputs into outputs. [ISO 12207]
A project is a unique set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements, including the constraints of time, cost and resources. [ISO 9000]
The level of (business) importance assigned to an item, e.g. defect.
A software development approach whereby lines of code (production and/or test) of a component are written by two programmers sitting at a single computer. This implicitly means ongoing real-time code reviews are performed.
Two persons, e.g. two testers, a developer and a tester, or an end-user and a tester, working together to find defects. Typically, they share one computer and trade control of it while testing.
A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute all possible discrete combinations of each pair of input parameters. See also orthogonal array testing.
A statistical technique in decision making that is used for selection of a limited number of factors that produce significant overall effect. In terms of quality improvement, a large majority of problems (80%) are produced by a few key causes (20%).
See equivalence partitioning. [Beizer]
Decision rules used to determine whether a test item (function) or feature has passed or failed a test. [IEEE 829]
The percentage of paths that have been exercised by a test suite. 100% path coverage implies 100% LCSAJ coverage.
Choosing a set of input values to force the execution of a given path.
A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute paths.
A review of a software work product by colleagues of the producer of the product for the purpose of identifying defects and improvements. Examples are inspection, technical review and walkthrough.
The degree to which a system or component accomplishes its designated functions within given constraints regarding processing time and throughput rate. [After IEEE 610] See also efficiency.
A high level metric of effectiveness and/or efficiency used to guide and control progressive development, e.g. lead-time slip for software development. [CMMI]
Definition of user profiles in performance, load and/or stress testing. Profiles should reflect anticipated or actual usage based on an operational profile of a component or system, and hence the expected workload. See also load profile, operational profile.
The process of testing to determine the performance of a software product. See also efficiency testing.
performance testing tool
A tool to support performance testing that usually has two main facilities: load generation and test transaction measurement. Load generation can simulate either multiple users or high volumes of input data. During execution, response time measurements are taken from selected transactions and these are logged. Performance testing tools normally provide reports based on test logs and graphs of load against response times.
phase test plan
A test plan that typically addresses one test phase. See also test plan.
The ease with which the software product can be transferred from one hardware or software environment to another. [ISO 9126]
The process of testing to determine the portability of a software product.
Comparison of actual and expected results, performed after the software has finished running.
See retrospective meeting.
Environmental and state conditions that must be fulfilled after the execution of a test or test procedure.
Environmental and state conditions that must be fulfilled before the component or system can be executed with a particular test or test procedure.
See expected result.
The effect on the component or system by the measurement instrument when the component or system is being measured, e.g. by a performance testing tool or monitor. For example performance may be slightly worse when performance testing tools are being used.
See defect management.
See defect report.
Testing aimed at ensuring that the component or system can operate in conjunction with new or existing users’ business procedures or operational procedures.
A disciplined evaluation of an organization’s software processes against a reference model. [after ISO 15504]
process cycle test
A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute business procedures and processes. [TMap] See also procedure testing.
A program of activities designed to improve the performance and maturity of the organization’s processes, and the result of such a program. [CMMI]
A framework wherein processes of the same nature are classified into a overall model, e.g. a test improvement model.
A risk directly related to the test object. See also risk.
A view of quality, wherein quality is based on a well-defined set of quality attributes. These attributes must be measured in an objective and quantitative way. Differences in the quality of products of the same type can be traced back to the way the specific quality attributes have been implemented. [After Garvin] See also manufacturing-based quality, quality attribute, transcendent-based quality, user-based quality, value-based quality.
production acceptance testing
See operational acceptance testing.
See component testing.
A structured way to capture lessons learned and to create specific action plans for improving on the next project or next project phase.
A risk related to management and control of the (test) project, e.g. lack of staffing, strict deadlines, changing requirements, etc. See also risk.
project test plan
See master test plan.
A series which appears to be random but is in fact generated according to some prearranged sequence.
The degree to which a component, system or process meets specified requirements and/or user/customer needs and expectations. [After IEEE 610]
The process of demonstrating the ability to fulfill specified requirements. Note the term ‘qualified’ is used to designate the corresponding status. [ISO 9000]
Part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled. [ISO 9000]
A feature or characteristic that affects an item’s quality. [IEEE 610]
See quality attribute.
A special milestone in a project. Quality gates are located between those phases of a project strongly depending on the outcome of a previous phase. A quality gate includes a formal check of the documents of the previous phase.
Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to quality. Direction and control with regard to quality generally includes the establishment of the quality policy and quality objectives, quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. [ISO 9000]
See Rational Unified Process.
A factor that could result in future negative consequences; usually expressed as impact and likelihood.
The consequence/outcome of the execution of a test. It includes outputs to screens, changes to data, reports, and communication messages sent out. See also actual result, expected result.
An evaluation of a product or project status to ascertain discrepancies from planned results and to recommend improvements. Examples include management review, informal review, technical review, inspection, and walkthrough. [After IEEE 1028]
The person involved in the review that identifies and describes anomalies in the product or project under review. Reviewers can be chosen to represent different viewpoints and roles in the review process.
A set of risks grouped by one or more common factors such as a quality attribute, cause, location, or potential effect of risk;. A specific set of product risk types is related to the type of testing that can mitigate (control) that risk type. For example the risk of user-interactions being misunderstood can be mitigated by usability testing.
A black box test design technique where test cases are selected, possibly using a pseudo-random generation algorithm, to match an operational profile. This technique can be used for testing non-functional attributes such as reliability and performance.
Rational Unified Process
A proprietary adaptable iterative software development process framework consisting of four project lifecycle phases: inception, elaboration, construction and transition.
Testing that runs test cases that failed the last time they were run, in order to verify the success of corrective actions.
See capture/playback tool.
The capability of the software product to re-establish a specified level of performance and recover the data directly affected in case of failure. [ISO 9126] See also reliability.
The process of testing to determine the recoverability of a software product. See also reliability testing.
See recoverability testing.
Testing of a previously tested program following modification to ensure that defects have not been introduced or uncovered in unchanged areas of the software, as a result of the changes made. It is performed when the software or its environment is changed.
See compliance testing.
A document identifying test items, their configuration, current status and other delivery information delivered by development to testing, and possibly other stakeholders, at the start of a test execution phase. [After IEEE 829]
The ability of the software product to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time, or for a specified number of operations. [ISO 9126]
reliability growth model
A model that shows the growth in reliability over time during continuous testing of a component or system as a result of the removal of defects that result in reliability failures.
The process of testing to determine the reliability of a software product.
The capability of the software product to be used in place of another specified software product for the same purpose in the same environment. [ISO 9126] See also portability.
A condition or capability needed by a user to solve a problem or achieve an objective that must be met or possessed by a system or system component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed document. [After IEEE 610]
An approach to testing in which test cases are designed based on test objectives and test conditions derived from requirements, e.g. tests that exercise specific functions or probe non-functional attributes such as reliability or usability.
requirements management tool
A tool that supports the recording of requirements, requirements attributes (e.g. priority, knowledge responsible) and annotation, and facilitates traceability through layers of requirements and requirements change management. Some requirements management tools also provide facilities for static analysis, such as consistency checking and violations to pre-defined requirements rules.
The period of time in the software lifecycle during which the requirements for a software product are defined and documented. [IEEE 610]
The capability of the software product to use appropriate amounts and types of resources, for example the amounts of main and secondary memory used by the program and the sizes of required temporary or overflow files, when the software performs its function under stated conditions. [After ISO 9126] See also efficiency.
resource utilization testing
The process of testing to determine the resource-utilization of a software product. See also efficiency testing.
The testing activities that must be repeated when testing is re-started after a suspension. [After IEEE 829]
A meeting at the end of a project during which the project team members evaluate the project and learn lessons that can be applied to the next project.
A tool that provides support to the review process. Typical features include review planning and tracking support, communication support, collaborative reviews and a repository for collecting and reporting of metrics.
The process of assessing identified risks to estimate their impact and probability of occurrence (likelihood).
See risk type.
The process through which decisions are reached and protective measures are implemented for reducing risks to, or maintaining risks within, specified levels.
The process of identifying risks using techniques such as brainstorming, checklists and failure history.
The importance of a risk as defined by its characteristics impact and likelihood. The level of risk can be used to determine the intensity of testing to be performed. A risk level can be expressed either qualitatively (e.g. high, medium, low) or quantitatively.
Systematic application of procedures and practices to the tasks of identifying, analyzing, prioritizing, and controlling risk.
See risk control.
An approach to testing to reduce the level of product risks and inform stakeholders of their status, starting in the initial stages of a project. It involves the identification of product risks and the use of risk levels to guide the test process.
The degree to which a component or system can function correctly in the presence of invalid inputs or stressful environmental conditions. [IEEE 610] See also error-tolerance, fault-tolerance.
Testing to determine the robustness of the software product.
A source of a defect such that if it is removed, the occurence of the defect type is decreased or removed. [CMMI]
root cause analysis
An analysis technique aimed at identifying the root causes of defects. By directing corrective measures at root causes, it is hoped that the likelihood of defect recurrence will be minimized.
See Sofware Process Improvement.
See Systematic Test and Evaluation Process.
A skeletal or special-purpose implementation of a software component, used to develop or test a component that calls or is otherwise dependent on it. It replaces a called component. [After IEEE 610]
An iterative incremental framework for managing projects commonly used with agile software development. See also agile software development.
The capability of the software product to achieve acceptable levels of risk of harm to people, business, software, property or the environment in a specified context of use. [ISO 9126]
The person who records each defect mentioned and any suggestions for process improvement during a review meeting, on a logging form. The scribe should ensure that the logging form is readable and understandable.
A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or set of functions. [IEEE 610]
See resource utilization.
A sequence of executable statements within a component.
Attributes of software products that bear on its ability to prevent unauthorized access, whether accidental or deliberate, to programs and data. [ISO 9126] See also functionality.
The degree of impact that a defect has on the development or operation of a component or system. [After IEEE 610]
Computer programs, procedures, and possibly associated documentation and data pertaining to the operation of a computer system. [IEEE 610]
Formal, possibly mandatory, set of requirements developed and used to prescribe consistent approaches to the way of working or to provide guidelines (e.g., ISO/IEC standards, IEEE standards, and organizational standards). [After CMMI]
A representation of summarized performance measurements representing progress towards the implementation of long-term goals. A scorecard provides static measurements of performance over or at the end of a defined interval. See also balanced scorecard, dashboard.
A device, computer program or system used during testing, which behaves or operates like a given system when provided with a set of controlled inputs. [After IEEE 610, DO178b] See also emulator.
The capability of the software product to avoid unexpected effects from modifications in the software. [ISO 9126] See also maintainability.
An entity in a programming language, which is typically the smallest indivisible unit of execution.
safety critical system
A system whose failure or malfunction may result in death or serious injury to people, or loss or severe damage to equipment, or environmental harm.
Testing to determine the safety of a software product.
See smoke test.
The capability of the software product to be upgraded to accommodate increased loads. [After Gerrard]
Testing to determine the scalability of the software product.
See use case testing.
Test execution carried out by following a previously documented sequence of tests.
A programming language in which executable test scripts are written, used by a test execution tool (e.g. a capture/playback tool).
security testing tool
A tool that provides support for testing security characteristics and vulnerabilities.
A tool that supports operational security.
Testing to determine the security of the software product. See also functionality testing.
See maintainability testing.
session-based test management
A method for measuring and managing session-based testing, e.g. exploratory testing.
An approach to testing in which test activities are planned as uninterrupted sessions of test design and execution, often used in conjunction with exploratory testing.
The representation of selected behavioral characteristics of one physical or abstract system by another system. [ISO 2382/1]
site acceptance testing
Acceptance testing by users/customers at their site, to determine whether or not a component or system satisfies the user/customer needs and fits within the business processes, normally including hardware as well as software.
A subset of all defined/planned test cases that cover the main functionality of a component or system, to ascertaining that the most crucial functions of a program work, but not bothering with finer details. A daily build and smoke test is among industry best practices. See also intake test.
Software Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (SFMEA)
See Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA).
Software Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (SFMECA)
See Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA).
Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA)
See Fault Tree Analysis (FTA).
The period of time that begins when a software product is conceived and ends when the software is no longer available for use. The software lifecycle typically includes a concept phase, requirements phase, design phase, implementation phase, test phase, installation and checkout phase, operation and maintenance phase, and sometimes, retirement phase. Note these phases may overlap or be performed iteratively.
Software Process Improvement
A program of activities designed to improve the performance and maturity of the organization’s software processes and the results of such a program. [After CMMI]
software product characteristic
See quality attribute.
The totality of functionality and features of a software product that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. [After ISO 9126]
software quality characteristic
See quality attribute.
software test incident
software test incident report
See incident report.
Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI)
A questionnaire-based usability test technique for measuring software quality from the end user’s point of view. [Veenendaal04]
A document that specifies, ideally in a complete, precise and verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a component or system, and, often, the procedures for determining whether these provisions have been satisfied. [After IEEE 610]
See black box testing.
See black box test design technique.
specification-based test design technique
See black box test design technique.
An input for which the specification predicts a result.
A model structure wherein attaining the goals of a set of process areas establishes a maturity level; each level builds a foundation for subsequent levels. [CMMI]
See off-the-shelf software.
See compliance testing.
A diagram that depicts the states that a component or system can assume, and shows the events or circumstances that cause and/or result from a change from one state to another. [IEEE 610]
A grid showing the resulting transitions for each state combined with each possible event, showing both valid and invalid transitions.
A transition between two states of a component or system.
state transition testing
A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute valid and invalid state transitions. See also N-switch testing.
The percentage of executable statements that have been exercised by a test suite.
A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute statements.
Analysis of software artifacts, e.g. requirements or code, carried out without execution of these software development artifacts. Static analysis is usually carried out by means of a supporting tool.
static analysis tool
See static analyzer.
A tool that carries out static analysis.
static code analysis
Analysis of source code carried out without execution of that software.
static code analyzer
A tool that carries out static code analysis. The tool checks source code, for certain properties such as conformance to coding standards, quality metrics or data flow anomalies.
Testing of a component or system at specification or implementation level without execution of that software, e.g. reviews or static analysis.
A test design technique in which a model of the statistical distribution of the input is used to construct representative test cases. See also operational profile testing.
An element of configuration management, consisting of the recording and reporting of information needed to manage a configuration effectively. This information includes a listing of the approved configuration identification, the status of proposed changes to the configuration, and the implementation status of the approved changes. [IEEE 610]
See resource utilization testing.
A type of performance testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its anticipated or specified work loads, or with reduced availability of resources such as access to memory or servers. [After IEEE 610] See also performance testing, load testing.
stress testing tool
A tool that supports stress testing.
Coverage measures based on the internal structure of a component or system.
structural test design technique
See white box test design technique.
See white box testing.
structure-based test design technique
See white box test design technique.
See white-box testing.
The capability of the software product to provide an appropriate set of functions for specified tasks and user objectives. [ISO 9126] See also functionality.
The process of testing to determine the suitability of a software product
The criteria used to (temporarily) stop all or a portion of the testing activities on the test items. [After IEEE 829]
A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed based upon the definition of the input domain and/or output domain.
system integration testing
Testing the integration of systems and packages; testing interfaces to external organizations (e.g. Electronic Data Interchange, Internet).
system of systems
Multiple heterogeneous, distributed systems that are embedded in networks at multiple levels and in multiple interconnected domains, addressing large-scale inter-disciplinary common problems and purposes, usually without a common management structure.
The process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specified requirements. [Hetzel]
Systematic Test and Evaluation Process
A structured testing methodology, also used as a content-based model for improving the testing process. Systematic Test and Evaluation Process (STEP) does not require that improvements occur in a specific order. See also content-based model.
See Test Process Group.
See Total Quality Management.
A set of one or more test cases. [IEEE 829]
A skilled professional who is involved in the testing of a component or system.
The process consisting of all lifecycle activities, both static and dynamic, concerned with planning, preparation and evaluation of software products and related work products to determine that they satisfy specified requirements, to demonstrate that they are fit for purpose and to detect defects.
See test environment.
A chronological record of relevant details about the execution of tests. [IEEE 829]
See test environment.
Execution of a test on a specific version of the test object.
Artifacts produced during the test process required to plan, design, and execute tests, such as documentation, scripts, inputs, expected results, set-up and clear-up procedures, files, databases, environment, and any additional software or utilities used in testing. [After Fewster and Graham]
A set of input values, execution preconditions, expected results and execution postconditions, developed for a particular objective or test condition, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement. [After IEEE 610]
Data that exists (for example, in a database) before a test is executed, and that affects or is affected by the component or system under test.
The individual element to be tested. There usually is one test object and many test items. See also test object.
A document describing the scope, approach, resources and schedule of intended test activities. It identifies amongst others test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, degree of tester independence, the test environment, the test design techniques and entry and exit criteria to be used, and the rationale for their choice, and any risks requiring contingency planning. It is a record of the test planning process. [After IEEE 829]
A software product that supports one or more test activities, such as planning and control, specification, building initial files and data, test execution and test analysis. [TMap] See also CAST.
A group of test activities aimed at testing a component or system focused on a specific test objective, i.e. functional test, usability test, regression test etc. A test type may take place on one or more test levels or test phases. [After TMap]
A peer group discussion activity that focuses on achieving consensus on the technical approach to be taken. [Gilb and Graham, IEEE 1028] See also peer review.
The implementation of the test strategy for a specific project. It typically includes the decisions made that follow based on the (test) project’s goal and the risk assessment carried out, starting points regarding the test process, the test design techniques to be applied, exit criteria and test types to be performed.
The use of software to perform or support test activities, e.g. test management, test design, test execution and results checking.
All documents from which the requirements of a component or system can be inferred. The documentation on which the test cases are based. If a document can be amended only by way of formal amendment procedure, then the test basis is called a frozen test basis. [After TMap]
test case design technique
See test design technique.
test case specification
A document specifying a set of test cases (objective, inputs, test actions, expected results, and execution preconditions) for a test item. [After IEEE 829]
test case suite
See test suite.
A statement of test objectives, and possibly test ideas about how to test. Test charters are used in exploratory testing. See also exploratory testing.
During the test closure phase of a test process data is collected from completed activities to consolidate experience, testware, facts and numbers. The test closure phase consists of finalizing and archiving the testware and evaluating the test process, including preparation of a test evaluation report. See also test process.
A test tool to perform automated test comparison of actual results with expected results.
The process of identifying differences between the actual results produced by the component or system under test and the expected results for a test. Test comparison can be performed during test execution (dynamic comparison) or after test execution.
test completion criteria
See exit criteria.
An item or event of a component or system that could be verified by one or more test cases, e.g. a function, transaction, feature, quality attribute, or structural element.
A test management task that deals with developing and applying a set of corrective actions to get a test project on track when monitoring shows a deviation from what was planned. See also test management.
Execution of the test process against a single identifiable release of the test object.
test data preparation tool
A type of test tool that enables data to be selected from existing databases or created, generated, manipulated and edited for use in testing.
Any test (work) product that must be delivered to someone other than the test (work) product’s author. See also deliverable.
(1) See test design specification, (2) The process of transforming general testing objectives into tangible test conditions and test cases.
test design specification
A document specifying the test conditions (coverage items) for a test item, the detailed test approach and identifying the associated high level test cases. [After IEEE 829]
test design technique
Procedure used to derive and/or select test cases.
test design tool
A tool that supports the test design activity by generating test inputs from a specification that may be held in a CASE tool repository, e.g. requirements management tool, from specified test conditions held in the tool itself, or from code.
test driven development
A way of developing software where the test cases are developed, and often automated, before the software is developed to run those test cases.
An environment containing hardware, instrumentation, simulators, software tools, and other support elements needed to conduct a test. [After IEEE 610]
The calculated approximation of a result related to various aspects of testing (e.g. effort spent, completion date, costs involved, number of test cases, etc.) which is usable even if input data may be incomplete, uncertain, or noisy.
test evaluation report
A document produced at the end of the test process summarizing all testing activities and results. It also contains an evaluation of the test process and lessons learned.
The process of running a test on the component or system under test, producing actual result(s).
test execution automation
The use of software, e.g. capture/playback tools, to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual results to expected results, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and reporting functions.
test execution phase
The period of time in a software development lifecycle during which the components of a software product are executed, and the software product is evaluated to determine whether or not requirements have been satisfied. [IEEE 610]
test execution schedule
A scheme for the execution of test procedures. The test procedures are included in the test execution schedule in their context and in the order in which they are to be executed.
test execution technique
The method used to perform the actual test execution, either manual or automated.
test execution tool
A type of test tool that is able to execute other software using an automated test script, e.g. capture/playback. [Fewster and Graham]
See test data preparation tool.
A test environment comprised of stubs and drivers needed to execute a test.
The process of developing and prioritizing test procedures, creating test data and, optionally, preparing test harnesses and writing automated test scripts.
test improvement plan
A plan for achieving organizational test process improvement objectives based on a thorough understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s test processes and test process assets. [After CMMI]
test incident report
See incident report.
The organizational artifacts needed to perform testing, consisting of test environments, test tools, office environment and procedures.
The data received from an external source by the test object during test execution. The external source can be hardware, software or human.
test item transmittal report
See release note.
See test manager.
A group of test activities that are organized and managed together. A test level is linked to the responsibilities in a project. Examples of test levels are component test, integration test, system test and acceptance test. [After TMap]
The process of recording information about tests executed into a test log.
The planning, estimating, monitoring and control of test activities, typically carried out by a test manager.
test management tool
A tool that provides support to the test management and control part of a test process. It often has several capabilities, such as testware management, scheduling of tests, the logging of results, progress tracking, incident management and test reporting.
The person responsible for project management of testing activities and resources, and evaluation of a test object. The individual who directs, controls, administers, plans and regulates the evaluation of a test object.
Test Maturity Model (TMM)
A five level staged framework for test process improvement, related to the Capability Maturity Model (CMM), that describes the key elements of an effective test process.
Test Maturity Model Integrated (TMMi)
A five level staged framework for test process improvement, related to the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), that describes the key elements of an effective test process.
A test management task that deals with the activities related to periodically checking the status of a test project. Reports are prepared that compare the actuals to that which was planned. See also test management.
The component or system to be tested. See also test item.
A reason or purpose for designing and executing a test.
A source to determine expected results to compare with the actual result of the software under test. An oracle may be the existing system (for a benchmark), other software, a user manual, or an individual’s specialized knowledge, but should not be the code. [After Adrion]
test performance indicator
A high level metric of effectiveness and/or efficiency used to guide and control progressive test development, e.g. Defect Detection Percentage (DDP).
A distinct set of test activities collected into a manageable phase of a project, e.g. the execution activities of a test level. [After Gerrard]
The activity of establishing or updating a test plan.
Test Point Analysis (TPA)
A formula based test estimation method based on function point analysis. [TMap]
A high level document describing the principles, approach and major objectives of the organization regarding testing.
See test procedure specification.
test procedure specification
A document specifying a sequence of actions for the execution of a test. Also known as test script or manual test script. [After IEEE 829]
The fundamental test process comprises test planning and control, test analysis and design, test implementation and execution, evaluating exit criteria and reporting, and test closure activities.
Test Process Group
A collection of (test) specialists who facilitate the definition, maintenance, and improvement of the test processes used by an organization. [After CMMI]
Test Process Improvement (TPI)
A continuous framework for test process improvement that describes the key elements of an effective test process, especially targeted at system testing and acceptance testing.
test process improvement manifesto
A statement that echoes the agile manifesto, and defines values for improving the testing process. The values are:
- flexibility over detailed processes
- best Practices over templates
- deployment orientation over process orientation
- peer reviews over quality assurance (departments)
- business driven over model driven.
test process improver
A person implementing improvements in the test process based on a test improvement plan.
test progress report
A document summarizing testing activities and results, produced at regular intervals, to report progress of testing activities against a baseline (such as the original test plan) and to communicate risks and alternatives requiring a decision to management.
See test logging.
See test summary report and test progress report.
An attribute of a test indicating whether the same results are produced each time the test is executed.
See test condition.
test run log
See test log.
See test procedure specification.
A list of activities, tasks or events of the test process, identifying their intended start and finish dates and/or times, and interdependencies.
Commonly used to refer to a test procedure specification, especially an automated one.
An uninterrupted period of time spent in executing tests. In exploratory testing, each test session is focused on a charter, but testers can also explore new opportunities or issues during a session. The tester creates and executes test cases on the fly and records their progress. See also exploratory testing.
See test condition.
A document that consists of a test design specification, test case specification and/or test procedure specification.
test specification technique
See test design technique.
See test level.
A high-level description of the test levels to be performed and the testing within those levels for an organization or programme (one or more projects).
A set of several test cases for a component or system under test, where the post condition of one test is often used as the precondition for the next one.
test summary report
A document summarizing testing activities and results. It also contains an evaluation of the corresponding test items against exit criteria. [After IEEE 829]
A set of exit criteria.
See test design technique.
The capability of the software product to enable modified software to be tested. [ISO 9126] See also maintainability.
A detailed check of the test basis to determine whether the test basis is at an adequate quality level to act as an input document for the test process. [After TMap]
The degree to which a requirement is stated in terms that permit establishment of test designs (and subsequently test cases) and execution of tests to determine whether the requirements have been met. [After IEEE 610]
A version of component integration testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by levels of a hierarchy.
An incremental approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested. See also integration testing.
Total Quality Management
An organization-wide management approach centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society. Total Quality Management consists of planning, organizing, directing, control, and assurance. [After ISO 8402]
The ability to identify related items in documentation and software, such as requirements with associated tests. See also horizontal traceability, vertical traceability.
The analysis of transactions between people and within people’s minds; a transaction is defined as a stimulus plus a response. Transactions take place between people and between the ego states (personality segments) within one person’s mind.
A view of quality, wherein quality cannot be precisely defined, but we know it when we see it, or are aware of its absence when it is missing. Quality depends on the perception and affective feelings of an individual or group of individuals towards a product. [After Garvin] See also manufacturing-based quality, product-based quality, user-based quality, value-based quality.
A sequence of transactions in a dialogue between an actor and a component or system with a tangible result, where an actor can be a user or anything that can exchange information with the system.
The capability of the software to be understood, learned, used and attractive to the user when used under specified conditions. [ISO 9126]
A test whereby real-life users are involved to evaluate the usability of a component or system.
The capability of the software product to enable the user to understand whether the software is suitable, and how it can be used for particular tasks and conditions of use. [ISO 9126] See also usability.
unit test framework
A tool that provides an environment for unit or component testing in which a component can be tested in isolation or with suitable stubs and drivers. It also provides other support for the developer, such as debugging capabilities. [Graham]
See component testing.
Code that cannot be reached and therefore is impossible to execute.
Testing to determine the extent to which the software product is understood, easy to learn, easy to operate and attractive to the users under specified conditions. [After ISO 9126]
use case testing
A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute scenarios of use cases.
user acceptance testing
See acceptance testing.
user scenario testing
See use case testing.
A view of quality, wherein quality is the capacity to satisfy needs, wants and desires of the user(s). A product or service that does not fulfill user needs is unlikely to find any users. This is a context dependent, contingent approach to quality since different business characteristics require different qualities of a product. [after Garvin] See also manufacturing-based quality, product-based quality, transcendent-based quality, value-based quality.
A framework to describe the software development lifecycle activities from requirements specification to maintenance. The V-model illustrates how testing activities can be integrated into each phase of the software development lifecycle.
An element of storage in a computer that is accessible by a software program by referring to it by a name.
Confirmation by examination and through provision of objective evidence that the requirements for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled. [ISO 9000]
A view of quality, wherein quality is defined by price. A quality product or service is one that provides desired performance at an acceptable cost. Quality is determined by means of a decision process with stakeholders on trade-offs between time, effort and cost aspects. [After Garvin] See also manufacturing-based quality, product-based quality, transcendent-based quality, user-based quality.
Confirmation by examination and through provision of objective evidence that specified requirements have been fulfilled. [ISO 9000]
See configuration control.
The tracing of requirements through the layers of development documentation to components.
Testing where the system is subjected to large volumes of data. See also resource-utilization testing.
See Work Breakdown Structure.
A step-by-step presentation by the author of a document in order to gather information and to establish a common understanding of its content. [Freedman and Weinberg, IEEE 1028] See also peer review.
See white-box test design technique.
white-box test design technique
Procedure to derive and/or select test cases based on an analysis of the internal structure of a component or system.
Testing based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component or system.
Wide Band Delphi
An expert based test estimation technique that aims at making an accurate estimation using the collective wisdom of the team members.
A pointer that references a location that is out of scope for that pointer or that does not exist. See also pointer.